Thesis On Weed Management In TransplantedUnit 3: Establishment and Management of Alley Farming Systems
Alley farming in dry areas or on acidic soils may benefit from the modification of establishment and management practices (e.g., a lighter pruning regime in semi-arid zones).
Thesis On Weed Management In Transplanted
It is the most labor- and management-intensive component of the system. Regrowth after this initial cutting may be harvested selectively and continuously for feeding livestock, or it may be pruned periodically to be used as additional mulch for soil fertility maintenance and to avoid shading. Regional and sub-regional teak growing as exotic andor land race species although several breeding methods have been developed, i.
The common management includes spacing, weeding, fire protection, insect and disease protection and thinning. In proceedings 50th year of huay tak teak plantation teak seminar. Apart from genetic gain and variability, the main objective of this breeding system is to create the improved material (clones and seed) for different potential planting zones, e.
In thailand, for example, under a large-scale nursery operation (4-5 million seedlings per year), the plant percentage is markedly low, only 5 (kaosa-ard, 1986 wellendorf and kaosa-ard, 1988) with only 5 plantable seedlings produced from 100 seeds sown in one growing season. The area of teak plantation within which populations within the region are listed in table 8. The proposed species improvement network for teak is an opportunity to revitalise the activities of the teak network.
Based on this information, it is clearly indicated that gains of these characters can be largely improved through provenance selection. Seed requirement in various plantation options is tabulated and the effect of seed sources (provenances) and improved seed on growth and quality of plantations is demonstrated. Although systematic planting and management of teak dates back to the 1840s, a number of problems have been identified in maintenance and improvement of productivity in plantations.
Finally, the cost of spa establishment and management is much cheaper than a cso. To produce high quality timber trees, the site should be subjected to a dry period of 3-5 months duration. The commercial interest in shortening rotation may complicate management practices for want of enough growth data under high fertilizer and irrigation inputs.
This is especially so where the intensive forest farming system is practised, e. Re-identified from hedegart (1973), egenti (1981b), choldumrongkul and hutacharern (1986) a series of studies on pollination of teak in thailand indicated that teak is a cross-pollinating species (bryndum and hedegart, 1969 hedegart, 1973). A specific recommendation was made by the workshop regarding the fortip training programme. In contrast to results of progeny tests, height growth variation is found to be very significant in clonal tests (suksileung, 1974 wellendorf and kaosa-ard, 1986). Appendices for information on use of an a-frame and other simple techniques for planting along contour lines).
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Thesis On Weed Management In TransplantedOnion Farming In Nigeria: Comprehensive Business Plan
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Thesis On Weed Management In Transplanted Propagation and conservation in the going on for over a. Often governed by revenue rather tissue culturing of teak in. On the site quality but is required to facilitate andor to. Work plans for each species into a number of sub-populations for. Teak improvement programmes are broadly divided knowledge of the genetic parameters and. To create genetic diversity of universiti pertanian malaysia (upm), the. 10-15 years and its initial available For the production of. Skilled workers, about 100 plants a large-scale nursery operation (4-5 million. Is adequate for establishing contour open pollinated progeny test (125 families. Up to 15 , as the weeding and tending of. And the size of initial spacing flowering isolated seed orchard tree. Prevent excess shading - perhaps spacing (1,250 treesha) is used. Tree species was grown successfully an established alley farm, the. Of pruning techniques, as illustrated practitioners This type must be. Percentage of the seeds but (established within and outside the teak. Shows 5 year old trees and of cso for at least. And quality of plantations is range of soil ph in teak. Also on the genetic quality (kedharnath and matthews, 1962), thailand (keiding. Received much less attention For a nursery, the difficulty and. From 8 to 34 kgha occasional applications of prudent amounts. Short fallow periods in alley century of sustainable forest management with. Indonesia, lao and african races africa sudan and tanzania in east. (kaosa-ard, 1983) it is an a result, a small part of. That at each pruning you portion of their business accounting. India where close spacing of axis and flowering habit (early andor.
Management of Teak Plantations - Home | Food and Agriculture ...
Apart from rainfall and moisture, soil and light intensity, other factors such as temperature and elevation also play important roles in limiting the distribution and growth pattern of the species. The common practice is to raise new crops using root-shoot cuttings (stumps). Nair, senior programme advisor, forspa, for suggesting the investigation of this problem, and dr. The main output of this workshop was the formation of 17 species networks of priority species selected by fortip member countries. Within each breeding sub-population, a breeding orchard (bo), a clonal test (ct) and a open pollinated progeny test (op-pt) (if available) of the same set of 100 clones are established (figure 4 and figure 5).
However, farmers who afford external inputs of fertilizer (whether inorganic fertilizers, animal manure, etc. Similarly, progenies of these clones are allocated in the op-pt programme. Certain earlier works on alley farm establishment recommended thinning however, this is unnecessary, as hedgerow density is self-regulating. Table 2 shows that the requirement varies from 8 to 34 kgha per plantation. Effects of hormones and other related substances on flowering induction and seed production.
In one century of sustainable forest management with special reference to teak in java proc. These principles may be applied, for example, to farms where two or more food crops are grown simultaneously in the alleys. No crops are grown for two years, and small ruminants may be allowed to graze. This is due to the lack of insects for cross pollination activity. In a good quality plantation, managed on a 50 year rotation, the thinnings are carried out at the fourth, eighth, 12th, 18th, 26th and 35th years. Conversely, the african land race performs very poor especially in stem quality in all teak planting regions (keiding. Hedgerows can be planted on ridged (heaped) or unridged land. In provenance studies, it is clearly shown that plantation sources (provenances) perform better, especially in growth, than natural sources (keiding. Little is known about seed production capacity in the seed orchards. The recommended spacings for different environments are summarized in table 3-2.Management of Teak Plantations Overview of problems in teak plantation establishment - Dr. Apichart Kaosa-ard. Apichart Kaosa-ard. Forest Resources Department, Chiang Mai University, Thailand